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Protagoras And Logos A Study In Greek Philosophy And Rhetoric Studies In Rhetoriccommunication.
PDF Download. Free Let's Go for a Drive! Carson, Walter W. Wessel, and Walter L. Hugo PDF Online. After his conversion to Christianity, he became interested in using these " pagan " arts for spreading his religion. This new use of rhetoric is explored in the Fourth Book of his De Doctrina Christiana, which laid the foundation of what would become homiletics , the rhetoric of the sermon. Augustine begins the book by asking why "the power of eloquence, which is so efficacious in pleading either for the erroneous cause or the right", should not be used for righteous purposes IV. One early concern of the medieval Christian church was its attitude to classical rhetoric itself.
Jerome d. Rhetoric would not regain its classical heights until the renaissance, but new writings did advance rhetorical thought. Boethius ? One positive consequence of the Crusades was the introduction of Arab scholarship and renewed interest in Aristotle, leading to what some historians call the twelfth century renaissance.
A number of medieval grammars and studies of poetry and rhetoric appeared. Late medieval rhetorical writings include those of St. Thomas Aquinas ? Pre-modern female rhetoricians, outside of Socrates' friend Aspasia , are rare; but medieval rhetoric produced by women either in religious orders, such as Julian of Norwich d.
In his Cambridge University doctoral dissertation in English, Canadian Marshall McLuhan surveys the verbal arts from approximately the time of Cicero down to the time of Thomas Nashe ? His dissertation is still noteworthy for undertaking to study the history of the verbal arts together as the trivium, even though the developments that he surveys have been studied in greater detail since he undertook his study. As noted below, McLuhan became one of the most widely publicized thinkers in the 20th century, so it is important to note his scholarly roots in the study of the history of rhetoric and dialectic.
Another interesting record of medieval rhetorical thought can be seen in the many animal debate poems popular in England and the continent during the Middle Ages, such as The Owl and the Nightingale 13th century and Geoffrey Chaucer 's Parliament of Fowls ? Sixteenth century Walter J. Ong's encyclopedia article "Humanism" in the New Catholic Encyclopedia provides a well-informed survey of Renaissance humanism, which defined itself broadly as disfavoring medieval scholastic logic and dialectic and as favoring instead the study of classical Latin style and grammar and philology and rhetoric.
One influential figure in the rebirth of interest in classical rhetoric was Erasmus c. His work, De Duplici Copia Verborum et Rerum also known as Copia: Foundations of the Abundant Style , was widely published it went through more than editions throughout Europe and became one of the basic school texts on the subject. Its treatment of rhetoric is less comprehensive than the classic works of antiquity, but provides a traditional treatment of res-verba matter and form : its first book treats the subject of elocutio , showing the student how to use schemes and tropes ; the second book covers inventio.
Much of the emphasis is on abundance of variation copia means "plenty" or "abundance", as in copious or cornucopia , so both books focus on ways to introduce the maximum amount of variety into discourse. For instance, in one section of the De Copia, Erasmus presents two hundred variations of the sentence "Semper, dum vivam, tui meminero".
Another of his works, the extremely popular The Praise of Folly , also had considerable influence on the teaching of rhetoric in the later sixteenth century. Its orations in favour of qualities such as madness spawned a type of exercise popular in Elizabethan grammar schools, later called adoxography , which required pupils to compose passages in praise of useless things. Juan Luis Vives - also helped shape the study of rhetoric in England. His best-known work was a book on education, De Disciplinis, published in , and his writings on rhetoric included Rhetoricae, sive De Ratione Dicendi, Libri Tres , De Consultatione , and a rhetoric on letter writing, De Conscribendis Epistolas It is likely that many well-known English writers would have been exposed to the works of Erasmus and Vives as well as those of the Classical rhetoricians in their schooling, which was conducted in Latin not English and often included some study of Greek and placed considerable emphasis on rhetoric.
See, for example, T. University of Illinois Press, The mids saw the rise of vernacular rhetorics — those written in English rather than in the Classical languages; adoption of works in English was slow, however, due to the strong orientation toward Latin and Greek. A successful early text was Thomas Wilson's The Arte of Rhetorique , which presents a traditional treatment of rhetoric. During this same period, a movement began that would change the organization of the school curriculum in Protestant and especially Puritan circles and lead to rhetoric losing its central place.
In his scheme of things, the five components of rhetoric no longer lived under the common heading of rhetoric. Instead, invention and disposition were determined to fall exclusively under the heading of dialectic, while style, delivery, and memory were all that remained for rhetoric.
See Walter J. Ramus, rightly accused of sodomy and erroneously of atheism, was martyred during the French Wars of Religion. His teachings, seen as inimical to Catholicism, were short-lived in France but found a fertile ground in the Netherlands, Germany and England. This work provided a simple presentation of rhetoric that emphasized the treatment of style, and became so popular that it was mentioned in John Brinsley's Ludus literarius; or The Grammar Schoole as being the "most used in the best schooles.
John Milton wrote a textbook in logic or dialectic in Latin based on Ramus' work, which has now been translated into English by Walter J. Ong and Charles J. Ramism could not exert any influence on the established Catholic schools and universities, which remained by and large stuck in Scholasticism, or on the new Catholic schools and universities founded by members of the religious orders known as the Society of Jesus or the Oratorians, as can be seen in the Jesuit curriculum in use right up to the 19th century, across the Christian world known as the Ratio Studiorum that Claude Pavur, S.
Louis: Institute of Jesuit Sources, If the influence of Cicero and Quintilian permeates the Ratio Studiorum , it is through the lenses of devotion and the militancy of the Counter-Reformation. The Ratio was indeed imbued with a sense of the divine, of the incarnate logos, that is of rhetoric as an eloquent and humane means to reach further devotion and further action in the Christian city, which was absent from Ramist formalism. The Ratio is, in rhetoric, the answer to St Ignatius Loyola's practice, in devotion, of "spiritual exercizes".
This complex oratorical-prayer system is absent from Ramism.
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However, in England, several writers influenced the course of rhetoric during the seventeenth century, many of them carrying forward the dichotomy that had been set forth by Ramus and his followers during the preceding decades. Of greater importance is that this century saw the development of a modern, vernacular style that looked to English, rather than to Greek, Latin, or French models. Francis Bacon , although not a rhetorician, contributed to the field in his writings.
One of the concerns of the age was to find a suitable style for the discussion of scientific topics, which needed above all a clear exposition of facts and arguments, rather than the ornate style favored at the time. Bacon in his The Advancement of Learning criticized those who are preoccupied with style rather than "the weight of matter, worth of subject, soundness of argument, life of invention, or depth of judgment.
Thomas Hobbes also wrote on rhetoric. Along with a shortened translation of Aristotle 's Rhetoric, Hobbes also produced a number of other works on the subject. Sharply contrarian on many subjects, Hobbes, like Bacon, also promoted a simpler and more natural style that used figures of speech sparingly. Perhaps the most influential development in English style came out of the work of the Royal Society founded in , which in set up a committee to improve the English language.
Sprat regarded "fine speaking" as a disease, and thought that a proper style should "reject all amplifications, digressions, and swellings of style" and instead "return back to a primitive purity and shortness" History of the Royal Society, While the work of this committee never went beyond planning, John Dryden is often credited with creating and exemplifying a new and modern English style. His central tenet was that the style should be proper "to the occasion, the subject, and the persons. His own prose and his poetry became exemplars of this new style.
John Henry Newman lived from The Canadian Jesuit philosopher and theologian Bernard Lonergan , who was deeply influenced by Newman's An Essay in Aid of a Grammar of Assent , worked out what he styles the generalized empirical method in Insight: A Study of Human Understanding and elsewhere. In a review article originally published in the Quarterly Journal of Speech ,. At the turn of the twentieth century, there was a revival of rhetorical study manifested in the establishment of departments of rhetoric and speech at academic institutions, as well as the formation of national and international professional organizations.
Theorists generally agree that a significant reason for the revival of the study of rhetoric was the renewed importance of language and persuasion in the increasingly mediated environment of the twentieth century see Linguistic turn. The rise of advertising and of mass media such as photography , telegraphy , radio , and film brought rhetoric more prominently into people's lives. For example, when McLuhan was working on his Cambridge University doctoral dissertation on the verbal arts and Nashe, mentioned above, he was also preparing the materials that were eventually published as the book The Mechanical Bride: The Folklore of Industrial Man Vanguard Press, This book is a compilation of exhibits of ads and other materials from popular culture with short essays about them by McLuhan.
The essays involve rhetorical analyses of the ways in which the material in an item aims to persuade, and commentary on the persuasive strategies in each item. After studying the persuasive strategies involved in such an array of items in popular culture, McLuhan shifted the focus of his rhetorical analysis and began to consider how communication media themselves have an impact on us as persuasive, in a manner of speaking.
In other words, the communication media as such embody and carry a persuasive dimension. McLuhan uses hyperbole to express this insight when he says " The medium is the message ". These two books led McLuhan to become one of the most publicized thinkers in the 20th century. No other scholar of the history and theory of rhetoric was as widely publicized in the 20th century as McLuhan.
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Lonergan's book is an elaborate guidebook to cultivate one's inwardness and on attending to and reflecting on one's inward consciousness. McLuhan's and books represent an inward turn to attending to one's consciousness that is far more pronounced than anything found in his book or in his dissertation.
By contrast, many other thinkers in the study of rhetoric are more outward oriented toward sociological considerations and symbolic interaction. McLuhan's famous dictum "the medium is the message" can be paraphrased with terminology from Lonergan. At the empirical level of consciousness, the medium is the message, whereas at the intelligent and rational levels of consciousness, the content is the message.
McLuhan is thus ordering us to pay attention to the empirical level of consciousness.
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Contemporary Study of Rhetoric Rhetorical theory today is as much influenced by the research results and research methods of the behavioral science s and by theories of literary criticism as by ancient rhetorical theory. Early rhetorical theorists attempted to turn the study of rhetoric into a social science that allowed predictive analyses of human behavior. Interdisciplinary scholars of symbol systems, such as Ernst Cassirer , Hugh Duncan , and most notably Kenneth Burke , influenced a new generation of rhetorical scholars who drew from various disciplines to more fully comprehend the phenomenon of human communication in all its aspects.
Contemporary rhetorical theory, in fact, flourishes within a strong humanistic tradition, while social scientific studies tend to include mass media and focus on communication theory. The work of modern rhetorical scholars such as Roderick Hart, Richard E. Vatz, Barry Brummett, and Sonja Foss demonstrate how rhetoric's involvement with the public forum and persuasion make it a singularly useful way to study all modes of communication from oral and written to various modes of entertainment and other public discourse.
While ancient rhetorical scholarship had focused primarily on rhetoric as speech, contemporary rhetorical theorists are interested in the panoply of human symbolic behavior—both the spoken and written word as well as music , film, radio, television , etc. Thus Kenneth Burke, who defined the human being as the "symbol-using animal," defined rhetoric as "the use of symbols to induce cooperation in those who by nature respond to symbols.
Topics of interest to contemporary scholars include the relationships between rhetoric and gender, studies of non-traditional or alternative rhetorics, and rhetorics of science, technology, and new media. Because the history of modern and contemporary rhetoric is closely tied to modern language theory and philosophy, some North American scholars like Thomas B.
All that can be safely said, as a start and in strict relation to rhetoric, is the following: Derrida wrote on voice; Foucault was aware of Stoic rhetoric; Lyotard had a post-Heideggerian concept of rhetoric as being-in-the-world. Rhetoric was part of the curriculum in Jesuit and, to a lesser extent, Oratorian colleges until the French Revolution. The French Revolution, however, turned this around. The Revolution went as far as suppressing the Bar, arguing that forensic rhetoric did disservice to a rational system of justice, by allowing fallacies and emotions to come into play.
Nonetheless, as later historians of the 19th century were keen to explain, the Revolution was a high moment of eloquence and rhetorical prowess, yet, against a background of rejection of rhetoric. Under the First Empire and its wide ranging educational reforms, imposed on or imitated across the Continent, rhetoric regained little ground. In fact instructions to the newly founded Polytechnic School, tasked with training the scientific and technical elites, made it clear that written reporting was to supersede oral reporting.
When manuals were redrafted in the mid-century, in particular after the Revolution, care was taken by writers in charge of formulating a national curriculum to distance their approach to rhetoric from that of the Church seen as an agent of conservatism and reactionary politics. By the end of the s, a major change had taken place: philosophy, of the rationalist or eclectic kind, by and large Kantian, had taken over rhetoric as the true terminal stage in secondary education, the so-called Class of Philosophy bridged college and university education.
Rhetoric was then relegated to the study of literary figures of speech, a discipline later on taught as Stylistics within the French literature curriculum. More decisively, in a new standard written exercise superseded the rhetorical exercises of speech writing, letter writing and narration. The new genre, called dissertation, had been invented, in , for the purpose of rational argument in the philosophy class. The dissertation design was influenced by Hegelianism.
It remains today the standard of writing in the humanities. By the beginning of the 20th century rhetoric was fast losing the remains of its former importance, to be taken out of the school curriculum altogether at the time of the Separation of State and Churches — part of the argument was indeed that rhetoric remained the last element of irrationality, driven by religious arguments, in what was perceived as inimical to Republican education. The move initiated in found its resolution in when rhetoric is expunged from all curricula.
However, it must be noted that, at the same time, Aristotelian rhetoric, owing to a revival of Thomistic philosophy initiated by Rome, regained ground in what was left of Catholic education in France, in particular at the prestigious Faculty of Theology of Paris, now a private entity. Yet, for all intents and purposes, rhetoric vanished from the French scene, educational or intellectual, for some 60 years.
In the early s a change began to take place, as the word rhetoric, let alone the body of knowledge it covers, started to be used again, in a modest and near confidential way. Knowledge of rhetoric was so dim in the early s, that his short memoir on rhetoric was seen as highly innovative. Basic as it was, it did help rhetoric regain some currency in avant-garde circles. Psycho-analyst Jacques Lacan , his contemporary, makes references to rhetoric, in particular to the Pre-Socratics.
Philosopher Jacques Derrida wrote on Voice. However, at the same time, more profound work was taking place that, eventually, gave rise to the French school of rhetoric as it exists today. This rhetorical revival took place on two fronts. Firstly, in the area of 17th century French studies, the mainstay of French literary education, awareness grew that rhetoric was necessary to push further the limits of knowledge, and also provide an antidote to Structuralism and its denial of historicism in culture.
He is the editor in chief of a monumental History of Rhetoric in Modern Europe. Secondly, in the area of Classical studies, Latin scholars, in the wake of Alain Michel, fostered a renewal in Cicero studies, breaking away from a pure literary reading of his orations, in an attempt to embed Cicero in European ethics, while, among Greek scholars literary historian and philologist Jacques Bompaire, philologist and philosopher E.
The second generation of Classicists, often trained in philosophy as well following Heidegger and Derrida, mainly , built on their work, with authors such as Marcel Detienne now at Johns Hopkins , Nicole Loraux d. Sociologist of science Bruno Latour and economist Romain Laufer may also be considered part of, or close to this group. Links between the two strands, the literary and the philosophical, of the French school of rhetoric are strong and collaborative and bear witness to the revival of rhetoric in France. The Profession and Teaching of Rhetoric in mostly North America Rhetoricians Other notable 20th- and 21st-century authors in the study of the history, theory, and criticism of rhetoric include Kenneth Burke , Wayne C.
Booth , Cleanth Brooks , Edward P. Richards , Stephen Toulmin , Victor J. Weaver , and Deirdre McCloskey , as well as others. Rhetoric in the North American Academy Contemporary scholars in rhetoric come from diverse academic backgrounds, and are often housed in departments of English, Communication Studies, Rhetoric, Education, or Speech Communication.
Rhetorical scholars meet at conferences such as the Conference on College Composition and Communication , the National Communication Association conference, and the Rhetoric Society of America conference. In Canada, The Canadian Society for the Study of Rhetoric is a small but thriving scholarly community with a yearly conference and an on-line journal, Rhetor. An undergraduate communication option is being developed, and a Masters Of Professional Communication is planned for the summer of A and "Rhetoric and Public Culture" M.
A and Ph. D Rhetoric and Technical Communication M. A University of Wisconsin-Madison. Discourse analysis Rhetoric is not only a method for training effective communicators rhetors ; as a discipline for advanced study, it is a method for understanding on a theoretical as well as a practical level how humans use language " discourse " to alter or shape our understanding of reality. Every text -- be it advertisement, lecture, speech, letter, blog, or chat -- inhabits a given discourse environment, hence the term discourse analysis.
Rather than providing a particular method, discourse analysis is a way of approaching and thinking about a problem; neither a qualitative nor a quantitative research method, but rather a questioning of the basic assumptions of quantitative and qualitative research methods.
Discourse analysis does not provide a tangible answer to problems based on scientific research, but it reveals the ontological and epistemological assumptions behind a project, a statement, a method of research, or - to provide an example from the field of Library and Information Science - a system of classification.
Discourse analysis thus reveals the hidden motivations behind a text or behind the choice of a particular method of research to interpret that text, enabling a more critical assessment of that text in light of the implicit assumptions that shaped it. By making these assumptions explicit, discourse analysis allows us to view the "problem" from varying perpsectives and to gain a comprehensive view of the "problem" and ourselves in relation to that "problem. Also see Critical discourse analysis. Eastern Rhetoric Indian and Chinese Rhetoric.
Examples of rhetoric List of speeches List of political slogans AmericanRhetoric. References Primary texts The locus classicus for Greek and Latin primary texts on rhetoric is the Loeb Classical Library of the Harvard University Press , published with an English translation on the facing page.
For other translations, see the references in each author's Wikipedia entry. Available online texts include: Aristotle. De Inventione. Latin only. De Oratore.